Here's my recipe that was submitted for the 1v1 mixing competition. Judged by the crew over on Noted. Thanks y'all.
You know what it is, a "simple" attempt at a grilled pineapple. With a five flavour restriction, there wasn't a whole mess of room to get subtle nuances in here, but what we're left with is something that is reminiscent of some grilled pineapple. Notes and my fucked up reasoning after the cut.
TPA Pineapple / CAP Golden Pineapple - This is not my go to pairing for a pineapple base, but that heavy handed use of CAP Golden Pineapple gives us a nice and sweet pineapple note to play with. I know there is an aversion to TPA Pineapple within this community, but other options just didn't hold up to the other flavours. CAP provides the best pineapple note to suggest the fully cooked fruit, while the TPA is here to bolster that tart bite when mixed with these other concentrates.
TPA Toasted Marshmallow - one of the best concentrates when trying to achieve a baked or cooked fruit note. At 1.75%, we achieve that caramelized note needed in a profile such as this. Furthermore, this helps round out the offensive edges seen when using TPA Pineapple. To it's detriment, it does add a bit of creaminess to the mix, but that added mouthfeel is quite nice for this mix. This does cause the profile to stray away from the "authenticity," but I believe it is a success for the overall flavour.
TPA Kentucky Bourbon - simply here to add a touch of warmth to the recipe. The added woodsy, earthy, and oak notes just play into that grilled profile even more.
FLV Red Burley - a fucking tobacco in a grilled pineapple recipe? Yes. While Red Burley adds a little extra sweetness to the mix, it gives a touch of nuttiness that plays really well into the suggestion of this being cooked fruit. Finally, anything that adds some earthy snap to a recipe titled as a grilled pineapple is just pushing this closer and closer to being a true success. A weird idea that seemed to work out quite nicely. I count that as a win, if only for my personal notes.
Steep Time - DO NOT, FOR THE LOVE OF SCIENCE, VAPE THIS ON A SHAKE. It's trash. Mix it and let it sit for 5 days at least. After that, the sickly sweet notes from all the concentrates calms down and we're left with something actually vapeable. This is not, nor ever will be, an all day vape. But if you're lookin for something weird and strange, give it a shot. It's not a perfect grilled pineapple, but the idea is there.
NOTE : INW NATURAL MINT IS USED AT 2 DROPS PER 15ml.
Cantaloupe, cucumber, mint. I've been working on this profile for a while now and I finally feel like it's finally at a point where I can release it. Something nice to close out the warm season, but with enough freshness and crisp bite to fit in with the cooler mornings and evenings. This recipe works as a nice palate cleanser, but also comes through with a nice amount of flavour.
FLV Cantaloupe / FLV Wild Melon - a match made in heaven. FLV Cantaloupe is a wonderful concentrate that is both accurate to the name, while avoiding any sort of off notes that come from cantaloupes in real life. With FLV Cantaloupe around 3%, we get a really bold, sweet cantaloupe note similar to biting right into the middle of a perfectly ripe slice. The addition of FLV Wild Melon adds some extra back end notes of general melon flavour. Nothing too distinct, but it just pushes the cantaloupe note into a more unique territory. Almost like if you got a cup of chopped cantaloupe, watermelon, and honeydew, but only ate the cantaloupe pieces. Delicious, and the higher percentages here allow it to stand up to the somewhat unusual power of the cucumbers.
FLV Cucumber / CAP Cucumber - These two work together to give us a fairly accurate cucumber note, but one that is sweet enough to avoid any sort of off-putting vegetable notes. FLV Cucumber brings the authenticity, likened to some fresh garden cucumbers, sliced up and immediately eaten. There are some slight notes of the cucumber rind/skin which add to the accuracy. Keep this one under 2% in your mixes, for around there, we start to get some strange bitterness and "dirty" accents. Not entirely pleasant at all. CAP Cucumber feels more like the flavour you get in a cucumber water type beverage. More on the sweet side, like eating just that part of the cucumber with the seeds. That fleshy interior that has a strange inherent sweetness to it, but not in the realm of candy or sugar sweetness, just only noticeable when you think about it. These two pair together to give us a great, slightly sweet cucumber that compliments and boosts the cantaloupe notes.
INW Natural Mint - This was actually the note I was struggling with the most for this recipe. Most of the time, it was far too overpowering. It was a matter of testing each new mix by drops until it got where I wanted it. There are obviously other mints that could be used here, but the subtle creaminess and vanilla notes found in INW Natural Mint made it the best choice in my opinion. As you probably know, this shit is incredibly potent, and will quickly destroy a mix in as little as one drop. I've found that two drops per 15ml is perfect for me, but play around with it to your liking. I wouldn't go over 4 drops per 15ml however, because that's where I found the mint to completely decimate any other flavours in this mix. The addition of the slight creaminess of INW Natural Mint brings a perfect mouthfeel to the cantaloupe, while the subtle notes of vanilla also pair nicely with the melons. That mint is here to add an extra layer of complexity and depth to the cucumber, while pushing this mix to be as refreshing and crisp as possible.
Steep time - This works as a shake and vape, for sure. After an overnight steep, whatever slight off notes from cucumber fade away, and after about 2 full days, everyone gets to know each other and we're left with a nicely balanced mix of cantaloupe, sweet cucumber, and vanilla mint.
A sour apple / strawberry lemonade, kept simple. This is a nice palate cleanser, which I was in desperate need of, but also has some interesting flavour and discoveries. Notes below.
FLV Lemonade / LA Lemonade - This is our base for this recipe, and it is quite good. Using a roughly 2:1 ratio of LA:FLV gives us an almost Country Time lemonade feel. The LA Lemonade still pushes to the front, which I believe is the superior of the two concentrates in terms of flavour, however, on the back end of the vape, we can notice a slight powdery sweetness that plays as a reminder of that deliciously artificial and sweet lemonade mix. While both work on their own, when combined, it just adds an extra layer of depth to the experience.
FLV Sour Apple / INW Two Apples - we get most of the apple flavour in this recipe from INW Two Apples. This concentrate is heavier on the green apple note, but there is some nice balance with the subtle back notes of a redder and sweeter apple. Going much higher than 2% on INW Two Apples will yield some bitterness and overall unpleasant off notes, so I keep it at 1.5% most of the time. That seems to be the sweet spot. Including just a dash of FLV Sour Apple amplifies that brightness and almost works as a replacement for citric acid or any sort of sour enhancer you may use. I don't note much apple flavour from this concentrate when used low, but it works beautifully to amplify the tartness of this recipe. However, this is where some of the throat hit will come from, and why a few days is required on the steep.
CAP Sweet Strawberry / FA Strawberry - FA strawberry is bringing most of the flavour in this pairing. I love this concentrate, and it might be my current favourite strawberry. It's not too overpowering, but it's also fairly authentic. We get some inherent sweetness here, but it isn't fake or candied. Just feels like biting into a fresh strawberry that is just slightly under-ripe. Adding CAP Sweet Strawberry to the party brings us that candied note and deep sweetness thanks to the EM that is loaded up in this concentrate. Here, I'm using a higher percentage of CAP Sweet Strawberry to not only round out some of those sour edges on the shake, but also to help assuage that throat hit after a few days of steeping.
OPTIONAL - FA Polar Blast - I use about 10 drops of Polar Blast per 15 ml in this one and it adds a nice touch of coldness to this. Because, really, why wouldn't you want some icy cold element in a lemonade vape?
Steep - Shake and Vape is good, but give this one about 2 or 3 days to really round out and allow those more biting notes of tartness to mellow out.
Back by popular demand (not really, no one asked for it), Green Cream III
So I wanted to revisit this one again because it seemed like loads of people enjoyed Green Cream II, but I felt like the recipe itself still was living in the shadow of Drunken Pears, given the profile. So I went back to the drawing board, and wanted to create something that was more than just a one-off. In this one, we focus more on the tart fruit flavours instead of the cream to create a refreshing vape with enough brightness that'll work not only as an ADV, but also as a nice palate cleanser. Let's get into it.
FA Pear / TPA Pear - you already know this combination works. The FA Pear brings the juicy sweet notes, while the TPA Pear helps make it more accurate and multidimensional. In previous versions of Green Cream, this was the focus for the flavour, but in this one, it works more as the base for the rest of the concentrates to work with.
INW Anton Apple / INW Lime - this pairing really makes this recipe feel green. It also pushes this one more into a tart fruit vape with hints of cream, as opposed to a cream vape with fruit notes. These two flavours are super potent, and the percentages used give us a really crisp green apple with that tart bite you get from lime juice. INW Lime is one of the most accurate lime flavours I've ever tried, but it's incredibly potent. Keep this shit low, even if you want it to be up front in a mix. Even at 0.25%, we get a strong punch of lime juice with a hint of the bitter rind note.
FLV Cream - this is our base for the cream, because this flavour really works as a neutral vessel for the the other flavours to hang out in. The best part about FLV Cream is that it imparts a velvety mouthfeel without any odd notes you get from other "mouthfeel" cream concentrates.
TPA Marshmallow / HS French Vanilla Ice Cream - I love the sweetness that TPA Marshmallow brings to the table. On it's own, however, it is easy to lose in a recipe that is so tart as this one. We're using it high to help combat some of the bitter notes from the lime, while accentuating the sweetness of the pears and apple. Furthermore, it helps add even more cream and sugar notes to the end result. Using HS French Vanilla Ice Cream is simply here to give the cream base more flavour, without really pushing it too much into a full on ice cream vape. If you want more of that cream note in this recipe, I'd recommend leaving HS FVIC where it's at, and then adding some TPA Vanilla Bean Ice Cream in at maybe 1.5%
Steep Time - this recipe is a little strange right off the shake. I can really only describe it as tasting similar to what a citrus cleaner smells like. It has some funky off notes coming from the INW Lime, but let it sit for at least three days, and the creams and TPA Marshmallow come in to mellow out those bitter off notes. What we're left with after three days is a really tasty and bright fruit recipe with hints of sugar and cream. However, if you're impatient, it's not horrible as a shake and vape. Just needs those few days to really let the flavours get to know each other.
A remix Method1's Lemonaids which is a remix of SlashaLO's Satyra.
This shit bangs. No subs possible. Best damn ratio of concentrates in the game. Fuck me up, fam.
ATF won't allow me to put the accurate steep day for this one, so please note that this recipe is best at about 5 days BEFORE you mix it. Trust me.
About a week ago, I came across a thread on the DIY subreddit where a user was asking if there were any good remixes of one of my very first DIY recipes, Nebula. I realized that I hadn't worked on, vaped, or even thought about that recipe in probably a year, so I went ahead and mixed up a bottle of my final iteration of it. While it wasn't necessarily bad, I felt as though it had a lot of room for improvement. So here it is, a reimagining of one of the first mixes I had ever put together. What started out as a clone attempt of Habu Vapor's Stargazer (a strawberry/pineapple mix with a cold exhale), has evolved into something nice that I am quite happy with.
This is nebulæ, something nice and refreshing for the unbearable heat of the summer.
CAP Sweet Strawberry / FA Red Touch - this combination is simply perfect. The CAP Sweet Strawberry brings about some really tasty notes of candied strawberry syrup. I used to dislike this concentrate until I was informed that I was essentially just using it wrong. This one has some really nice flavour when pushed to higher percentages. It does require a small steep in order to mellow out, but after that, we're just left with some very sticky and bloody red strawberry syrup. The FA Red Touch is used in here to bring back some authenticity to the mix, and remind us that we're not vaping on some sugary ice cream topping, but just a very sweet and overripe strawberry. Red Touch has the accurate and slightly seedy notes, while Sweet Strawberry brings the candy.
TPA Pineapple / TPA Dragonfruit - While I believe CAP Golden Pineapple is an objectively better concentrate all around, I think TPA's option is utilized best here. The bright tartness of TPA Pineapple helps cut into the thick sweetness of the strawberries. TPA Dragonfruit shares almost the same volatile structure as most pineapple concentrates available, but helps round out the fairly one-dimensional offering from TPA Pineapple. The dragonfruit helps add some sweetness, while also bringing some slight tropical undertones.
FA Apricot - I've said it a million times, but this is easily one of my favourite concentrates. It's potent, vibrant, and is the perfect replacement for any peach concentrate I have. In the original recipe for Nebula, I was using TPA Juicy Peach, which is like vaping razorblades. Then I moved to FA White Peach, which is significantly nicer to my throat, but still just wasn't right. I wanted the peach notes in here to bring some wetness and added tart brightness to an otherwise deeply sweet mix. As soon as I came back to this recipe, I knew FA Apricot was the best option.
INW Cactus / FA Polar Blast - the cactus is here to add some more "juicy wetness" to the recipe. The subtle aloe notes aren't really noticeable at lower percentages, but every so often I'll pick up just the slightest little hint of it on the back end. I'm tempted to push this higher into the mix to accentuate that aloe note just a bit, because it does seem to play around nicely with the tropical notes from the pineapple and dragonfruit. Finally, Polar Blast. I like my fruit mixes cold, and Polar Blast is just infinitely better than Koolada.
Steep Time - this one is a quick steep. Shake and vape is still going to yield an enjoyable experience, but give it about two days, and the off notes from CAP Sweet Strawberry fade away to let all the other flavours get to know each other just a little better.
There it is, a reimagining of one of the first recipes I ever produced. I hope you enjoy.
Nashville, TN. On a secluded stretch of road, there is a beautiful little diner that pays homage to the old trucker stops where weary travelers can get a nice home-cooked meal. This diner is called Loveless Cafe, and it is one of the greatest places on Earth. With homemade biscuits made fresh every day, delicious coffee, and some of the greatest breakfast I've ever had, this diner is the greatest example of southern hospitality I've found during my trips to Tennessee. While I am not a fan of dairy milk, Loveless creates a variety of different flavoured milks that are all absolutely delicious. Obviously as mixers, we constantly see those strawberry milk, banana milk, and blueberry milk recipes almost every other day on ATF. However, Loveless stands out with something a little different, an orange milk. Of course, orange cream recipes are nothing new, but they tend to focus more on the orange note, or creating something like an Orange Dream ice cream bar. This recipe is a straight up dairy milk with orange accents, and it's one of my favourite recipes I've come up with, and the product of a few weeks of meddling.
TPA Orange Cream / FA Blood Orange / CAP Juicy Orange - TPA Orange Cream is a great concentrate, but one that is easy to fuck up. With too little, we won't taste much of anything, and with too much, we're stuck with some really bitter and unpleasant off notes of orange rind and soured milk. At 2.5%, we are getting close to this concentrate's ceiling, but it works beautifully. Here we get a nice base to build the orange milk off of. Slightly sweet orange flavour, heavy cream notes, and just a touch of sugar. Using FA Blood Orange at 1.25%, we get a nice punch in the mouth of tart oranges. This helps push the fruit notes through the remaining cream concentrates, and leaves us with something that hits those orange notes on the inhale, but fades away to give room for the sweet creams on the exhale. Finally, CAP Juicy Orange is one of my favourites, for it tastes EXACTLY like orange juice. It's a tough flavour on it's own, for it has a slight waxiness on the mouthfeel. But with all of the other oranges in here, it just gives us a little extra wetness to the fruit notes.
FLV Cream / FA Vienna Cream / FW Hazelnut - these three concentrates bind together to help us get a pretty accurate dairy milk base. The FLV Cream is one of the best cream concentrates on the market. Neutral, inoffensive, and full of mouthfeel. We get subtle notes of dairy maltiness in FLV Cream, but we're mainly using it here to create a nice, thick, unsweetened milk. The use of FA Vienna Cream brings some added sweetness to the mix, while suggesting the malt note we need to say this is a dairy milk recipe. Finally, the use of FW Hazelnut is in here to push that accurate nuttiness into the milk profile. Take a sip of plain dairy milk, and then take a whiff of FW Hazelnut, and try to tell me you don't need this concentrate in a milk recipe. I love this combination of flavours, and I think it creates something absolutely perfect for any recipe calling for dairy milk.
CAP Vanilla Bean Ice Cream - while this isn't an ice cream recipe, I don't find CAP VBIC to be an ice cream concentrate. For this recipe, the inherent vanilla notes found in this concentrate play better than using something like INW Shisha Vanilla, or really anything that is specifically JUST vanilla. With those concentrates, we get too much vanilla infused into the recipe, and it begins to take over the subtle orange notes. Instead, using CAP VBIC adds some more mouthfeel to the mix, while giving us just a touch of vanilla extract that complement the oranges so well.
TPA Honeysuckle - this was a bit of a stretch, for the original orange milk from Loveless does not have any floral notes or anything like that. But, TPA Honeysuckle is something special, and while I can't entirely pinpoint WHAT the flavour itself is, I notice how it helps keep the creams separated from the oranges, and it helps us achieve that goal to have a citrus fruit inhale, and a heavy sweet milk exhale. Honeysuckle seems to help this separation remain even after a steep.
Steep Time - delicious as a shake and vape, you know me, that's how I like my recipes. After about 4 days, everything gets to the best it'll be. The oranges meld together to create a bright, juicy, and slightly rind-y orange profile. The creams reach their peak and have a bold flavour, rich vanilla note, and delicious sugary sweetness. Overall, 4 days is where this recipe hits it's stride, but again, you can get in on it straight away.
If you've been to Loveless Cafe, you know why this place feels like Heaven, and I truly hope I've done justice to it's delicious orange milk.
The first in a possible series of SmotherU variants, SMOTHEREDLEMON is a simple mix that brings the sweet and heavy notes from SmotherU, but brings some nice citrus flavour to make it an enjoyable ADV for the warmer weather. Mix this shit up, it's been my go to for the past week. As always, flavour notes below.
TPA Marshmallow / CAP Marshmallow - these are the two most important parts of SmotherU, obviously. The TPA Marshmallow brings on that fluffy marshmallow mouthfeel as well as some really heavy sugary sweetness. The use of CAP Marshmallow (use v1 if you have it, v2 doesn't really work in any recipe because it's trash) is here to boost the genuine marshmallow flavour. Simple.
CAP Vanilla Whipped Cream - one of my favourite concentrates right now, this shit is just heaven for any recipe that needs some thick and fluffy sweetness. The added touch of vanilla works really nicely in the SmotherU recipe, and works even better in here due to the citrus notes.
FA Lemon Sicily - you learn something new everyday, and I learned recently that FA Lemon Sicily can actually be used at high percentages. Realizing this has changed the game for some of my test recipes that will be released in the near future. I've always used FA LS below 1% because it imparts this lemon zest type flavour there. I never thought to boost it higher because, well, I just had assumed it'd either get bitter as fuck or just fade out entirely. How fucking stupidly mistaken I was. At 3 and 4%, this concentrate brings out some delicious bakery notes, almost like a straight up lemon cookie. Slightly below 3%, like we did here, creates something that can only be described as a baked lemon flavour. This melds so nicely with the marshmallow to create just a really pleasant sweet, fluffy, and citrusy inhale.
FA Blood Orange - I used this simply to boost the flavour of the lemon, and it works perfectly at a low percentage. Instead of imparting any sort of real orange notes, it just adds some deeper complexity and body to the lemon. You don't necessarily need this one, but it adds another subtle layer to the mix. Keeps the overall profile from being too linear.
FLV Cream - we all know how this concentrate works, and in here, it does exactly what it's supposed to. Add a little mouthfeel, emulsify the citrus into the other creams, and create an extra touch of sweetness, all while being as inoffensive and hidden as possible.
With the warm weather fast approaching, I decided it was time to drift away from the cream and bakery recipes I had been working on. MadLad Lemonade is a simple, summertime lemonade that works well on it's own, but has loads of versatility to add whatever extra fruit flavours you may want. Great as a shake and vape, give it 2-3 days to bring out the unique flavours sitting underneath LA Lemonade. As always, flavour notes below.
LA Lemonade - the obvious choice for the lemonade base. This shit is just delicious. After a few days, the flavour starts to mellow out, and you are left with a very pleasant lemonade that is equal parts sweet and tart. Also, a pretty versatile concentrate, you can lower the percentage to get the lemonade to sit as an accent note. At 4.25, it holds up to the steep and keeps melding with the other flavours.
FW Beetle Juice - HUGE shouts out to CaptainCannibal for his tireless work on his SHURB clone over the years. In his latest iterations, he noted that Beetle Juice was the missing ingredient. I had never tried this concentrate until now, but holy shit is it tasty. I typically have an aversion to concentrates that are meant to be a mix of flavours, because I typically would rather build up a complex flavour from scratch. But FW Beetle Juice is one of the rare exceptions to the rule. This shit is fruity, candy sweet, and imparts a slight mouthfeel reminiscent of sherbet. It adds a smoothness to the recipe that I can't get enough of. After 2 days of steeping, this flavour punches its way to the front and brings amazing notes of orange, sweet lime, and maybe even a touch of strawberry. I'd say you could do without if you don't have it, and just build those notes from other concentrates, but there is something magical about Beetle Juice, and it plays SO well in this recipe. 10/10, this is gonna be a new staple in my mixes.
INW Cactus / FA Oba Oba - FINALLY, after a year of being told I need it for my fruit mixes, I have INW Cactus. Now, I don't believe it fully lives up to the hype surrounding it. While I do like it, and I do feel it brings a nice wetness to the fruits, I still hold FA Pear is the go to for that kind of emulsification. However, in this recipe, it works better than FA Pear. There aren't any off notes, and it just helps boost all of the other flavours in a way that pear just wasn't doing. FA Oba Oba is here to play with FW Beetle Juice. It pushes that mouthfeel a little further, and imparts a bit more citrus note to the mix, as a whole. These two are some must-haves if you're trying to do some citrus emulsification in your recipes.
CAP Lemon Lime - I initially used FA Lemon Sicily to brighten up LA Lemonade, but it just wasn't doing what I wanted. Enter CAP Lemon Lime. In here, it helps the lemonade note hold up to the steep, while also adding a little touch of carbonation on the back end. It's not EXACTLY like carbonated lemonade, but that's not what I wanted. It just makes the lemonade feel even more refreshing and bright in a way that LS wasn't.
FA Polar Blast - honestly, the TPA Koolada killer. Y'all know I like to add menthol to almost all of my fruit mixes. And I had been using Koolada for years. Polar Blast is "just better" -Shyndo 2017. It doesn't impart ANY flavour at all, there are no weird off notes when mixed with other concentrates, and it is actually a lot less harsh than Koolada is. This shit is great, and helps the lemonade feel cold. Mixing this with the CAP Lemon Lime really creates the feel that you're sipping on some freshly made lemonade.
So there ya go. I was gonna save this for my 1v1 with Vurve, but I didn't want to wait any longer to drop it. Mix it up, and play with different fruits to make it your own. Cheers.
My adaptation of Shindo's D-Cream, a bangin re-imagined version of Mustard Milk. Basically, Shin came up with the idea to mix up Fuji and VBIC, and I decided to dive in and refine it. So, before anything, shoutsout Shindo for fuckin around and giving me the ideas in this recipe.
FA Fuji / FA Pear / TPA Pear - if you've been paying attention, the combination of FA Pear and TPA Pear creates one of the most accurate and delicious pear notes in the game right now. By itself, it tastes great, but using these two as the support to FA Fuji is nothing short of heavenly. The pears help soften some of the harsh ends of FA Fuji, while also adding some sweetness and depth to it. You don't inherently taste the pear notes here, but they add something special to the fuji. This is gonna be my new go-to when I want to add FA Fuji to recipe as a base note.
TPA Vanilla Bean Ice Cream / HS French Vanilla Ice Cream - another winning combination. Usually, in recipes like this, we see TPA VBIC at a much higher percentage because it gives a decent mouthfeel on the shake and vape, but steeps into something magical. However, in this recipe, the use of HS FVIC in tandem with the TPA Marshmallow, I was able to keep TPA VBIC low. While not only helping to cut out some of that inherent pepper note that some people pick up on, using TPA VBIC at 2.25% keeps it from overpowering the mix after a few days of steeping. The HS FVIC picks up the slack by adding a more authentic vanilla note, some incredible maltiness, and a very rich sweetness.
TPA Marshmallow - I still have an obsession with this concentrate. It can work as an emulsifier, it can be a sweetener, and it can add some real flavour. In this recipe, I'm making it implement all three. The marshmallow is here to help bind the fruits together, act as a boost of sugary sweetness to the creams, and just include a touch of some marshmallow flavour. Not that I'm trying to create any sort of mashmallow flavour profile, but using it as an accent note to the ice cream is just perfect. This flavour can be altered to your own personal liking, but don't push it over 3%, that's where you will start changing this profile into a fruity marshmallow cream. But hey, if that's your thing, go for it.
Steep time - this shit bangs as a shake and vape. However, it will feel separated, and the Fuji will have a much sharper bite to it. Even just an overnight steep helps mellow things out, but let it sit for about 4 days to get a really rich profile. This is the kind of recipe that just keeps getting better over time. But, you know, don't be fucking stupid and steep it for 6 months and then wonder why it tastes like shit.
There we go. Thanks Shindo, you're my prince.