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In 1936, Turing delivered a paper, "On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem," in which he presented the notion of a universal machine (later called the â€śUniversal Turing Machine," and then the "Turing machine") capable of computing anything that is computable: The central concept of the modern computer was based on Turingâ€™s paper.

Over the next two years, Turing studied mathematics and cryptology at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. After receiving his Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1938, he returned to Cambridge, and then took a part-time position with the Government Code and Cypher School, a British code-breaking organization.

During World War II, Turing was a leading participant in wartime code-breaking, particularly that of German ciphers. He worked at Bletchley Park, the GCCS wartime station, where he made five major advances in the field of cryptanalysis, including specifying the bombe, an electromechanical device used to help decipher German Enigma encrypted signals. Turingâ€™s contributions to the code-breaking process didnâ€™t stop there: He also wrote two papers about mathematical approaches to code-breaking, which became such important assets to the Code and Cypher School (later known as the Government Communications Headquarters) that the GCHQ waited until April 2012 to release them to the National Archives of the United Kingdom.

Turing moved to London in the mid-1940s, and began working for the National Physical Laboratory. Among his most notable contributions while working at the facility, Turing led the design work for the Automatic Computing Engine and ultimately created a groundbreaking blueprint for store-program computers. Though a complete version of the ACE was never built, its concept has been used as a model by tech corporations worldwide for several years, influencing the design of the English Electric DEUCE and the American Bendix G-15â€”credited by many in the tech industry as the worldâ€™s first personal computerâ€”among other computer models.

Homosexuality was illegal in the United Kingdom in the early 1950s, so when Turing admitted to policeâ€”who he called to his house after a break-inâ€”in January, 1952, that he had had a sexual relationship with the perpetrator, 19-year-old Arnold Murray, he was charged with gross indecency. Following his arrest, Turing was forced to choose between temporary probation on the condition that he receive hormonal treatment for libido reduction, or imprisonment. He chose the former, and soon underwent chemical castration through injections of a synthetic estrogen hormone for a year, which eventually rendered him impotent.

As a result of his conviction, Turing's security clearance was removed and he was barred from continuing his work with cryptography at the GCCS, which had become the GCHQ in 1946.

Turing died on June 7, 1954. Following a postmortem exam, it was determined that the cause of death was cyanide poisoning. The remains of an apple were found next to the body, though no apple parts were found in his stomach. The autopsy reported that "four ounces of fluid which smelled strongly of bitter almonds, as does a solution of cyanide" was found in the stomach. Trace smell of bitter almonds was also reported in vital organs. The autopsy concluded that the cause of death was asphyxia due to cyanide poisoning and ruled a suicide.

The Ancient Greeks had a problem with representing zero. They understood the concept, but philosophically and religiously had issues with it. They questioned, â€śhow can nothing be something?â€ť This philosophical paradox lead many Greeks to not supporting the idea of representing zero as an actual value. Then in 130 AD Ptolemy used a symbol for zero in his work Almagest, which was on mathematical astronomy. This was called the Hellenistic zero and was used by itself, not just a placeholder. This zero, however, was not used in arithmetic and other areas of mathematics like it is today.

To find a zero that is more common to the uses of today we need to look into 7th century India. Before zero became used as an integer, arithmetic was struggling. Some problems that faced everyday life were much more difficult to calculate. Indians were using words to describe â€śnothingâ€ť such as â€śvoidâ€ť, â€śskyâ€ť, and â€śspaceâ€ť (translated into English). Then in 628 AD the Indian mathematician Brahmagupta came up with a solution. He introduced a set of rules for this nothing number. He described it as, â€śwhen zero is added to a number or subtracted from a number, the number remains unchanged. A number multiplied by zero becomes zeroâ€ť. This was the first concrete application of zero as a number and not as a place holder. Brahmagupta did make a mistake though. He thought that one divided by zero would produce zero.

Brahmagupta was also a savvy business man. He went with this concept of zero and came up with what he called â€śdebtâ€ť, which he described as the opposite of property. With this concept of debt he thought up what we would call now as negative numbers. Before this idea, there was no way to subtract a larger number from a smaller number. The thought was that this would produce a meaningless value or at best nothing. Brahmaguptaâ€™s idea of debt gave him more insight to things such as subtracting a debt from zero will produce a fortune, or a positive value. Brahmaguptaâ€™s work with zero also lead him to discover that quadratic equations had two solutions, which also lead to Brahmagupta looking at quadratic equations with multiple variables.

This is my banana cream pie recipe.

This was a tricky one, I've been working on it on and off for about a year and could never seem to get it where I wanted it. After trying out tons of bananas, my first hit was with TFA Banana Cream. If this flavor was stronger, my banana quest would be over, but it took many failed attempts with crap banana flavorings to get it right. Finally, recently I picked up LA Banana Cream. While I think TFA is better overall, LA adds what TFA is missing on its own.

I wanted to focus on the filling of the pie with this recipe more than the crust, so I added some heavy hitter creams like FLV Cream and CAP Vanilla Custard. Had I stopped here the pie would have been a lot thicker, like a custard or pudding. That's where the CAP Vanilla Whipped Cream comes in, to help lighten up the creams and create more of a cream pie feel.

Lastly was the crust. I wanted a light graham crust to keep the focus on the filling. So I went with TFA Graham Cracker clear, INW Biscuit, and a touch of FA Almond to create a nice bright crust.

Check out the video for this recipe!

https://youtu.be/xjEFRmSPFto

"The father of Geometry", Euclid was a Greek mathematician most known for his work "Elements" which covers a series of proofs in Geometry. He also made wondrous strides in number theory, such as Euclid's Theorem that states, "There exists infinitely man prime numbers". Euclid is debatably the most influential mathematician of all time and continues to be so to this day.

This is a blueberry cheesecake recipe. I wanted to create more of a cheesecake with a blueberry syrup, rather than a blueberry infused cheesecake that is often what I've seen. This is done by using CAP blueberry jam and Quince. Both have a "wetness" to them that creates the effect of a liquid blueberry. The cheesecake is comprised of NY Cheesecake and Cream Cheese Icing. For the crust I went with a combination of FW Graham Cracker and INW Biscuit to keep it from being too bitter.

Awesome recipe man, I vaped through this like no tomorrow.

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